Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, this reader uses a carefully selected group of primary sources and analytical essays to allow students to test the interpretations of distinguished historians and draw their own conclusions about the history of American foreign policy. This text serves as an effective educational tool for courses on U.S. foreign policy, recent U.S. history, or 20th Century U.S. history. The Seventh Edition introduces new studies on America’s early foreign relations which seek to position the nation’s post “9-11” attitudes and behaviors within historical context. Some of the new literature spotlights cultural relations, and the ways in which culturally constructed attitudes about class, gender, race, and national identity have shaped American’s perceptions of the world and subsequently its overseas relationships. In this volume, almost one-half of the essays are new, including selections by Michael L. Krenn, Walter A. Hixson, Robert Kagan, John Lamberton Harper, Marie-Jeanne Rossignol, Joseph J. Ellis, John E. Lewis Jr., Piero Gleijeses, Stuart Banner, McCabe Keliher, Michael H. Hunt, Kristin L. Hoganson, Paul A. Kramer, Stanley Karnow, Robert W. Tucker, and Erez Manela.